Introduction to Cryptocurrency


Cryptocurrency is a relatively new form of money that functions in a very different way than the traditional currency we all use on a daily basis. The most fundamental distinction is that it is solely virtual money, which means there are no actual bitcoin coins or notes to carry around in your wallet. It’s also issued or generated in a one-of-a-kind manner. New cryptocurrency units often enter circulation through a technological process that requires the cooperation of volunteers from all over the world using their computers, rather than being produced by a central bank or government, as U.S. dollars, euros, and other fiat currencies are. As a result, bitcoin is frequently referred to as “decentralized.” Cryptocurrencies are not normally controlled or operated by a single entity or country. To protect and confirm bitcoin transactions, a large network of volunteers from all over the world is required. But it’s not just their digital character or how they’re issued that distinguishes cryptocurrencies from traditional currencies; there are other distinctions as well:


Regulation: For decades, the global financial system has relied on numerous fiat currencies, and most governments have developed a set of rules and best practices to govern their use. Cryptocurrency, on the other hand, is a mostly unregulated market, with restrictions that differ by country.

Speed and cost: Using cryptocurrencies to send and complete cross-border transactions is much faster than using a traditional banking system. When compared to utilizing fiat currency, transactions can be completed in minutes rather than days, and frequently at a fraction of the cost.

Fiat money has an inexhaustible supply. That means governments and central banks can generate new currency whenever they want amid a financial crisis. Cryptocurrencies, on the other hand, often have a predetermined supply that is decided by an algorithm. Many cryptocurrencies (though not all) have a supply limit built-in. Bitcoin, for example, the world’s first cryptocurrency and the largest by market capitalization, has a maximum supply of 21 million tokens that are released at a steady and predictable rate. This means that once the total number of bitcoins in circulation reaches 21 million, the protocol will stop issuing new coins. All completed crypto transactions are permanent and final, unlike transactions using fiat money. Once crypto transactions have been added to the ledger, it is nearly hard to reverse them.

What is the significance of the ‘crypto’ in cryptocurrency?

In cryptocurrency, the term “crypto” refers to a unique method of encrypting and decrypting data known as cryptography, which is used to safeguard all transactions sent between users. Cryptography is critical in allowing users to freely trade tokens and currencies with one another without the need for a third party, such as a bank, to keep track of each person’s balance and assure the network’s security.

It also eliminates a problem that used to make middlemen like banks necessary: the double-spend problem, which occurs when a person tries to spend the same balance with two distinct parties. Cryptocurrencies employ cryptography to encrypt sensitive data, such as crypto holders’ private keys, which are large alphanumeric strings of letters. Consider private keys to be the passwords that determine cryptocurrency ownership. It’s important to remember that cryptocurrencies can’t be kept elsewhere other than on the blockchain. They will always be based on the blockchain. As a result, when someone claims to own X number of coins, what they really mean is that their password allows them to claim X number of coins on the blockchain lawfully.


Cryptocurrency holders store their private keys in wallets, which are, as you may have guessed, special types of software or devices designed specifically for this purpose. In the event that a crypto holder loses access to his or her private key, the coins linked to that key may be permanently lost.


Private keys are encrypted using cryptographic technology to create wallet addresses, which are similar to bank account numbers. To digitally sign transactions, you’ll need your private key. “I confirm I am giving this quantity of X coin to this individual,” you’re basically saying to everyone on the network. Wallet addresses, on the other hand, represent the final destination of transactions. Because the encryptions are only performed in one route, private keys cannot be derived from a person’s wallet addresses.


What is a cryptocurrency and how does it work?

While cryptocurrencies themselves serve as a means of exchanging or storing money, they all rely on “blockchain,” a form of public ledger technology that records data and keeps track of all transactions sent over the network. A blockchain is a virtual chain of blocks, each of which contains a batch of transactions and other data. Each block in the chain becomes immutable once it is added to the chain, which means the data stored inside it cannot be modified or erased.

Because cryptocurrencies are administered by a network of voluntary contributors known as “nodes,” rather than by a single intermediary, a system must be in place to ensure that everyone records and adds new data to the blockchain ledger in an honest manner. On the network, the nodes play a range of responsibilities, from storing a complete archive of all prior transactions to validating new transaction data. Blockchain technology has the following advantages over traditional finance, where a master copy is maintained by a single organization because it allows a distributed group of people to each maintain their own copy of the ledger:

Consider having a cluster of computers take on the job of a bank, updating the balance sheets of users on a regular basis. The balance sheets of distributed ledgers, on the other hand, aren’t kept on a single server. Instead, several copies of the balance sheets are spread across multiple computers, with each node, or computer linked to the network, acting as its own server. As a result, even if one of the computers goes down, it won’t be as bad as it would be if a single server-based database went down, as with traditional banking systems.

This infrastructure design allows cryptocurrencies to avoid the security flaws that affect the traditional currency. Because attackers must take control of more than half of the machines connected to the blockchain network, attacking or manipulating this system is tough. A coordinated attack can be prohibitively expensive, depending on the size of the network. When you consider the amount of money required to target well-known cryptocurrencies like bitcoin with what the attacker stands to gain at the end of the day, it’s clear that such an operation isn’t financially viable.

It’s also worth noting that the scattered nature of these digital assets contributes to their censorship resistance. Unlike banks, which are regulated by countries, cryptocurrencies have databases all around the world. As a result, even if a government shuts down one or all of these computers under its territory, the network will continue to function since there are hundreds of additional nodes in other countries that are beyond its control. We’ve already covered why cryptocurrencies are safe and resistant to censorship in this tutorial. Let’s look at how crypto transactions are verified now.


What methods are used to verify cryptocurrency transactions?

Remember that blockchains are distributed databases in which all transactions on a crypto network are permanently recorded. Every transaction block is linked chronologically in the sequence in which the transactions were validated. Crypto transactions are validated by nodes because it is hard to set up a central authority or bank to oversee blockchains (computers connected to a blockchain). So, how do these networks make sure node operators are willing to participate in the validation process? The only way to ensure that people will continue to spend their time and computers in a blockchain’s validation mechanism is to create incentives for them to do so.

Validators are urged to participate actively and honestly in the validation process in exchange for benefits in the form of newly minted (produced) cryptocurrency through incentives. This incentive system establishes the guidelines for selecting validators, who will then validate the following batch of transactions. It also guarantees that the validators’ activities are in line with the network’s overall aim. Validator nodes discovered to be engaging in behaviors that jeopardize the crypto network’s validity may be prohibited from participating in future validation operations or penalized. Consensus protocols are another name for these incentive systems.


Existing blockchain networks employ a diverse spectrum of consensus protocols. The two most popular are:

Proof-of-work (PoW) is a computer-intensive consensus technique that compels validators (also known as miners) to compete using expensive equipment in order to develop a winning code that provides them the privilege to add a new block of transactions to the blockchain. Miners receive newly minted bitcoins known as “block rewards” as incentives when they add a new block of transactions to the blockchain. The successful miner receives any fees associated with the transactions they include in the new block. Bitcoin, Dogecoin, and Litecoin are examples of cryptocurrency networks that use PoW processes.

Proof-of-stake (PoS) is a less energy-intensive version of the Proof-of-Work (PoW) protocol. Node operators do not need to invest a lot of money in specialist mining equipment in this case. To demonstrate their dedication to the network’s well-being, users just need to deposit (or lock away) a specific sum of coins on the blockchain. The protocol then selects nodes at random from the pool of staked funds and assigns them distinct tasks. Successful validators are rewarded with newly created crypto tokens as a reward for their efforts. Cardano, Ethereum 2.0, and Polkadot are among the crypto networks that use this architecture.

What exactly are tokens?

Tokens are digital assets issued by blockchain-based decentralized applications. These are apps identical to those found on your smartphone, but instead of being controlled by a single corporation, they operate independently. Consider it a free Uber app where cab drivers and passengers can connect without having to pay a commission to the intermediary firm. Because these applications rely on blockchain infrastructure, transactions using tokens incur an additional cost that is settled in the blockchain’s native coin. When you transmit a token – let’s say USDT – on the Ethereum blockchain, for example, you’ll have to pay a transaction fee in ETH, the Ethereum ecosystem’s native money.

What makes a cryptocurrency different from a digital currency?

Cryptocurrencies are blockchain-based digital assets. They’re the means by which value is transferred between decentralized networks and applications. Digital currencies are any digital form of money, such as cryptocurrencies or virtual money backed by a central bank.

What are the different ways that cryptocurrencies are valued?

The functionality of a cryptocurrency’s underlying blockchain determines its worth, yet there have been many occasions where social media buzz and other superficial factors have inflated prices. Cryptocurrencies using blockchains that are thought to have a wide range of uses are usually more valued than those that don’t. It all comes down to the coin’s demand vs supply, and if the buyer is ready to pay more than the seller paid for it. Cryptocurrencies, in particular, favor a deflationary system, in which the number of new coins introduced to the market is predictable and gradually decreases over time.

Another crucial aspect of many cryptocurrencies is that the total amount of coins that can ever exist is frequently fixed. For example, only 21 million bitcoins will be generated, with more than 18 million presently in circulation. This deflationary-based system is diametrically opposed to traditional finance, which allows governments to print an infinite number of fiat notes and thereby devalue their currencies.


Cryptocurrency classifications

Bitcoin was the first of today’s plethora of cryptocurrencies. Following its launch in 2009, developers began to design alternative cryptocurrency versions based on the Bitcoin network’s infrastructure. In most situations, cryptocurrencies were created to build upon Bitcoin’s requirements. Other cryptocurrencies that arrived after bitcoin are commonly referred to as “altcoins,” which comes from the phrase “alternatives to bitcoin.” The following are some notable examples:

  • Ethereum
  • Litecoin
  • Cardano
  • XRP
  • Polkadot
  • EOS
  • Solana
  • Bitcoin Cash (BCH) is a cryptocurrency that

What is cryptocurrency’s use case?

Initially, bitcoin was promoted as a viable replacement to fiat currency due to its portability, censorship resistance, global availability, and low cost of transacting across borders. However, with the exception of digital assets tied to fiat currencies, the value of cryptocurrencies hasn’t been able to match the level of stability required to function as a medium of exchange. As a result, most crypto investors have moved their focus to the investment potential of cryptocurrencies, resulting in the emergence of the speculative side of the market. Investors appear to be more concerned about the likelihood of a cryptocurrency’s price rising in the future than whether or not they can use cryptocurrencies to buy products and services, therefore crypto is now primarily considered as an investment.